Hintereisferner - an Open Air Laboratory
Hintereisferner (HEF) is a valley glacier located in the inner Ötztal Alps, Austria. It is the key research site for glaciological studies carried out at the Institute of Atmopsheric and Cryospheric Sciences of the University of Innsbruck (ACINN) since many decades. In historical documents, the glacier is mentioned in 1601 for the first time, which is in the context of the formation of an ice dammed lake in front of the glacier (Figure 1).
Similar references date from 1678, 1774, 1770, and 1816. More systematic observations, mainly referring to length changes, began in 1847 and the first regional maps were produced in 1870 and 1888. The first detailed map of HEF dates from 1894, followed by a long series of maps from terrestrial surveys (Figure 2) and since 2001 upgraded by one or two airborne LIDAR surveys per year for geodetic determination of ice volume changes (Figure 3).
Multidisciplinary scientific work on HEF was initiated in the dawn of the International Geophysical Year 1957. At that time, a network of stakes and pits was established to directly measure the mass balance of the glacier (Hoinkes, 1970). Today, the ACINN hosts one of the longest mass balance series in the world, which is also an important issue in the context of recent climate variability. The dynamics of HEF were another focus of early investigations as well. Moreover, a complementary network of climate stations and totalising precipitation gauges is maintained in the surroundings of the glacier since 1969. HEF was always considered in the context of neighbouring glaciers (Kesselwandferner and Vernagtferner) yielding important knowledge on regional glacier behaviour.
Research on HEF has ever been an interdisciplinary effort and a number of national and international projects built upon the long-term mass balance observation. Moreover, HEF has also been a site to develop and test instruments, methods and models (Kuhn et al., 1999). Thus, research on HEF also stimulated polar research issues and the mass balance series has become central for regional and global glacier mass change assessments of different complexity (Marzeion, Hofer, Jarosch, Kaser, & Mölg, 2012).
Currently, we are upgrading the Open Air Laboratory Hintereisferner and its integration into the basin scale of the Rofental (in cooperation with the Institute of Geography of the University of Innsbruck, alpS, and the Bavarian Academy of Sciences) by modernizing the meteorological, hydrological and glaciological observational network for improving standard and new methods, for addressing pressing research questions, and by opening data sets and the research station (Figure 4) to the international scientific community.